GONADS

Gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females) are reproductive organs which produce gametes (spermatozoa and ova) and hormones that together with hypothalamic and pituitary hormones regulate reproduction (Pineda 2003a and 2003b). Moreover, in cats, which are photoperiodic animals, melatonin (a hormone produced by the pineal gland which has increased secretion in darkness) decreases pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus affecting reproductive activity in these animals (Dooley and Pineda 2003; Michel 1993). The main steroid hormones produced in testes are androgens (testosterone as the main androgen is essential for spermatogenesis) and estrogens (Brinsko 2007; de Gier and van Sluijs 2010). The main steroid hormones produced in ovaries are estrogens (essential for endometrium proliferation) and progesterone (essential for pregnancy) (Beshay and Carr 2013).

References

Beshay V.E., Carr B.R. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis and Control of the Menstrual Cycle. In: Falcone T. and Hurd W.W. (eds.) Clinical Reproductive Medicine and Surgery: A Practical Guide. 2 nd ed. Springer Science+Business Media, New York, 2013, pp. 31-42.

Brinsko S.P. Reproductive Physiology of the Male. In: Cunningham J.G. and Klein B.G. (eds.) Textbook of Veterinary Physiology. 4 th ed. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, 2007, pp. 517-525.

de Gier J., van Sluijs F. Testes. In: Rijnberk A. and Kooistra H.S. (eds.) Clinical Endocrinology of Dogs and Cats. An Illustrated Text. 2 nd ed. Schlütersche Verlagsgesellschaft, Hannover, 2010, pp. 235-251.

Dooley M.P., Pineda M.H. Patterns of Reproduction. In: Pineda M.H. and Dooley M.P. (eds.) McDonald’s Veterinary Endocrinology and Reproduction. 5 th ed. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, 2003, pp. 377-393.

Michel C. Induction of oestrus in cats by photoperiodic manipulations and social stimuli. Laboratory Animals, 1993, 27, 278-282.

Pineda M.H. Male Reproductive System. In: Pineda M.H. and Dooley M.P. (eds.) McDonald’s Veterinary Endocrinology and Reproduction. 5 th ed. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, 2003a, pp. 239-282.

Pineda M.H. Female Reproductive System. In: Pineda M.H. and Dooley M.P. (eds.) McDonald’s Veterinary Endocrinology and Reproduction. 5 th ed. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, 2003b, pp. 283-340.

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