CANINE AND FELINE ENDOCRINE DISORDERS

Endocrine disorders are diseases that affect the endocrine system. The endocrine system is made of endocrine glands which produce and secrete hormones (chemical signaling substances transported in the blood by the circulatory system that affect other cells, tissues and organs through interaction with cell receptors). The role of hormones is the regulation of physiological processes, and the production and secretion of hormones is regulated by feedback mechanism (Greco and Stabenfeldt 2007; Reimers 2003).

Endocrine disorders in dogs and cats result from the actions of various factors which affect the production of hormones (increased or decreased) or tissue and organ sensitivity for these hormones through affecting the efficiency or number of hormone receptors on the surface or within target cells (Reimers 2003; Rijnberk and Mol 2010).


Hyperadrenocorticism, hypothyroidism, and diabetes mellitus are the most common canine endocrinopathies (Dixon 2004; Herrtage 2004; Nelson 2004). Diseases such as hypoadrenocorticism, primary hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, diabetes insipidus, insulinoma, pheochromocytoma, primary hyperaldosteronism, acromegaly, pituitary dwarfism, and other endocrine disorders occur uncommonly or rarely in dogs (Bailey and Page 2007; Feldman and Nelson 2004a, 2004b; Greco 2012, Klein and Peterson 2010; Peterson and Nichols 2004; Rand et al. 2004).

Diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism are the most prevalent endocrine diseases in cats (Gunn-Moore 2005; Rand and Marshall 2005). Other diseases such as hypoparathyroidism, primary hyperparathyroidism, hypothyroidism, hypoadrenocorticism, hyperadrenocorticism, primary hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, insulinoma, acromegaly, hyposomatotropism, diabetes insipidus, and the rest of the endocrine diseases are uncommonly or rarely diagnosed in cats (Bailey and Page 2007; Gunn-Moore 2005).


References

Bailey D.B., Page R.L. Tumors of the Endocrine System. In: Withrow S.J. and Vail D.M. (eds.) Withrow & MacEwen’s Small Animal Clinical Oncology. 4 th ed. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, 2007, pp. 583-609.

Dixon R.M. 2004. Canine hypothyroidism. In: Mooney C.T. and Peterson M.E. (eds.) BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Endocrinology. 3 rd ed. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester 2004, pp. 76-94.

Feldman E.C., Nelson R.W. Canine Thyroid Tumors and Hyperthyroidism. In: Feldman E.C. and Nelson R.W. (eds.) Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction. 3 rd ed. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, 2004a, pp. 219-249.

Feldman E.C., Nelson R.W. Disorders of Growth Hormone. In: Feldman E.C. and Nelson R.W. (eds.) Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction. 3 rd ed. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, 2004b, pp. 45-84.

Greco D.S. Endocrine Causes of Calcium Disorders. Topics in Companion Animal Medicine, 2012, 27, 150-155.

Greco D.S., Stabenfeldt G.H. The Endocrine System. In: Cunningham J.G. and Klein B.G. (eds.) Textbook of Veterinary Physiology. 4 th ed. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, 2007, pp. 410-427.

Gunn-Moore D. Feline Endocrinopathies. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 2005, 35, 171-210.

Herrtage M.E. Canine hyperadrenocorticism. In: Mooney C.T. and Peterson M.E. (eds.) BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Endocrinology. 3 rd ed. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester 2004, pp. 150-171.

Klein S.C., Peterson M.E. Canine hypoadrenocorticism: Part I. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 2010, 51, 63-69.

Nelson R.W. Canine diabetes mellitus. In: Mooney C.T. and Peterson M.E. (eds.) BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Endocrinology. 3 rd ed. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester 2004, pp. 112-128.

Peterson M.E., Nichols R. Investigation of polyuria and polydipsia. In: Mooney C.T. and Peterson M.E. (eds.) BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Endocrinology. 3 rd ed. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester 2004, pp. 16-25.

Rand J.S., Fleeman L.M., Farrow H.A., Appleton D.J., Lederer R. Canine and Feline Diabetes Mellitus: Nature or Nurture? Journal of Nutrition, 2004, 134, 2072S-2080S.

Rand J.S., Marshall R.D. Diabetes Mellitus in Cats. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 2005, 35, 211-224.

Reimers T.J. Introduction. In: Pineda M.H. and Dooley M.P. (eds.) McDonald’s Veterinary Endocrinology and Reproduction. 5 th ed. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, 2003, pp. 1-15.

Rijnberk A., Mol J.A. Introduction. In: Rijnberk A. and Kooistra H.S. (eds.) Clinical Endocrinology of Dogs and Cats. An Illustrated Text. 2 nd ed. Schlütersche Verlagsgesellschaft, Hannover, 2010, pp. 3-12.

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